Ad Agencies

Also known as advertising agencies. Typically strategic media buying firms or full-service creative firms that partner with brand advertisers and marketers to plan, design, produce, place and supervise ad creatives or ad media buys.

Ad blocking

Ad blocking or ad filtering is a software capability for removing or altering online advertising in a web browser or an application. The most popular ad blocking tools are browser extensions.

Ad call

An Ad Call or Ad Request is when one computer requests an ad from another. It is a generic term that refers to the request for an ad.

Ad exchange

An ad exchange is a technology platform that facilitates the buying and selling of media advertising inventory from multiple ad networks. Prices for the inventory are determined through real-time bidding. The approach is technology-driven as opposed to the historical approach of negotiating price on media inventory.

An ad view, counted every time a Creative (ad) is served to a user.

Ad network

An online advertising network or ad network is a company that connects advertisers to websites that want to host advertisements. The key function of an ad network is an aggregation of ad supply from publishers and matching it with advertiser's demand.

Ad pod

In a nutshell, ad podding provides publishers the ability to return multiple ads from a single ad request. Those ads are then played in sequence, similar to a linear TV commercial break.

Ad server

An ad server is a piece of advertising technology (AdTech) that is used by publishers, advertisers, ad agencies, and ad networks to manage and run online advertising campaigns. Ad servers are responsible for making instantaneous decisions about what ads to show on a website, then serving them. On top of that, an ad server collects and reports data (such as impressions, clicks, etc.) for advertisers to gain insights from and monitor the performance of their ads.

Ad Supported streaming video (ASVOD)

ASVOD is similar to SVOD (Subscription Video on Demand), but is configured to allow ad-supported streaming.

Ad tag

An ad tag is a snippet of code that needs to be inserted within the HTML code of a webpage where an ad is due to be displayed. The advertising industry has developed several solutions to automatize this process.

Ad Impression

Ad targeting is an advertisement technique where advertisements are placed in specific placements of the screen to increase visibility and "clickability" or to give tailor-made ads based on the user’s past behaviors and preferences. The placements are picked aiming to reach certain customers based on demographics, psychographics, behavior and other second-order activities that are learned usually through data exhaust produced by users themselves.

Ad unit

An ad unit is a single advertising ‘block’ that shows as part of an advertising campaign.

Ad verification

Ad verification is a service that offers technology to ensure that ads appear on intended sites and reach the targeted audience.

AdChoices is a self-regulatory program for online interest-based advertising that exists in the United States, Canada and across Europe. The program calls for advertising companies to establish and enforce responsible privacy practices for interest-based advertising, aimed to give consumers enhanced transparency and control. Companies adhere to a set of principles that are enforced by accountability programs.[

AdChoices Icon

"AdChoices" is part of the Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA) Self-Regulatory Program for Online Behavioral Advertising. The clickable icon associated with this program (technically named the "Advertising Option Icon") can be placed overtop of creatives in order to give consumers a better understanding of and greater control over ads that are customized based on their online behavior.


Ad Operations (aka “online ad operations”, “online advertising operations”, “online ad ops”, “ad ops”, and “ops” in the trade) refers to processes and systems that support the sale and delivery of online advertising.

Adreassable TV

Addressable TV advertising is the ability to target individually selected households with specific advertisements. This is delivered via set-top boxes using first- or third-party data. Addressable TV reporting is typically based on actual online and offline outcomes such as site activity, branding and sales.


Ads. cert is the Interactive Advertising Bureau's upgrade to ads. txt and uses cryptographically signed bid requests to show the path of inventory and authenticate that inventory.


ads.txt (Authorized Digital Sellers) is an initiative from IAB Technology Laboratory. It specifies a text file that companies can host on their web servers, listing the other companies authorized to sell their products or services. This is designed to allow online buyers to check the validity of the sellers from whom they buy, for the purposes of internet fraud prevention.


The term “ad tech,” which is short for advertising technology, broadly refers to different types of analytics and digital tools used in the context of advertising.

AdTech platform

Software used to automate the buying, selling and measurement of online advertising.The most common examples include Demand-side platform (DSP)s, Ad servers, Ad networks, Ad exchanges, sSupply-side platform (SSP)s and Data-management platform (DMP)s.

Advanced targeting data

Advanced targeting data (or audience data) is a data set used for the purposes of making ad decisions beyond what can be leveraged from age and gender. It may include the use of first-, second- and third-party audience data for buying and targeting.


A person or company interested in displaying ads to consumers on websites, apps, TV, radio, podcasts, etc.

Advertising agency

A company that provides services associated with creating, planning, and managing advertising campaigns, but may also handle other forms of promotion and marketing for its clients.Advertising agencies are generally independent and external companies working for their clients, which can include businesses, international corporations, non-profit organizations, and other agencies.

Affiliate Advertising

When a blogger or website owner promotes ads for an advertiser on their site, this is called affiliate advertising. The website is operating as an ‘affiliate’ of the advertiser. Affiliate advertising is based on performance – whether it be Pay Per Click, Pay Per Lead or Pay Per Sale. This means that the website owner or publisher only receives payment for ads that are clicked, or leads gathered, or when the advertised product or service is purchased. Most affiliate marketers and advertisers connect via affiliate advertising networks or affiliate programs. The choice of program or platform will depend on the type of product or service being advertised, the style of the publisher’s website, the niche target audience, payment terms, and other factors.

Agency Trading Desk

A trading system developed by large agency holding companies to make programmatic purchasing more efficient for their customers. Agency Trading Desks usually access several DSPs and thus a larger inventory, and can be connected to additional data streams via Data Management Platforms (DMPs)

Analytics suite

A set of fully integrated applications for the collection, measurement, analysis, visualisation, and sharing of analytics data.The Analytics Suite is designed to help users of all levels get easy access to the data they need in order to efficiently collaborate, draw immediate value from data, and make smarter business decisions.

Application programming interface (API)

APIs enable connection to external applications and allow to transfer data from multiple platforms to a unified dashboard.


A way to link a specific advertisement to a Conversion or acquisition. The most common attribution model is last view/last click. As AdTech advances, other models of attribution are also being used.


An auction is the practice of allowing multiple buyers to value and bid on a singular ad opportunity, leveraging first-, second- or third-party data within a pre-fulfillment window. The concept of an auction is different in the TV world than in the digital world. TV auctions exist within a spectrum of totally open and highly controlled bidding rules and publisher controls that enforce end value for both the buy and sell sides.

Audience buying

Audience buying is the process of directly buying audience segments based on data. TouchPoint™ is able to not only target specified audience segments, but actually learn the most effective combinations of creative and context within those segments. Those learnings are then applied to extend the campaign beyond the originally defined audience segment.

Audience segment

A list of user profiles consisting of individual internet users grouped together based on similarities they share, such as the websites they visit or the actions they take (e.g. making a purchase or completing a form), or personally identifiable data such as gender or geographical region. For example, “Android users between the ages of 20-35 who live in New York.These segments are used during real-time bidding (RTB) media buys to display ads to users who meet the criteria.

Automated Guaranteed

An automated transaction in the Private Marketplace, where an advertiser buys placements at a fixed price over a fixed period of time. Most similar variant to traditional non-programmatic media buying.

Automated media buying

Automated media buying allows for targeting and engaging with consumer segments within a single platform. TouchPoint’s™ buying capabilities provide everything agency teams need to plan, buy, optimize and measure media campaigns across all formats and all devices worldwide.

Automatic content recognition (ACR)

Automatic content recognition (ACR) is an identification technology that recognizes content that is played on a media device or is present in a media file. Devices containing ACR support enable users to quickly obtain additional information about the content they have just experienced without any user-based input or search efforts.



Inventory that is not pre-sold, also known as remnant inventory. Can also refer to one ad network filling unsold inventory for another ad network.rtise.

Banner ad

The term banner ad is often used as a broad definition of an image or media-rich display ad shown to users on websites.


A bluetooth-based device that communicates with mobile phones and tablets. Beacons can send in-store promotions to users, for one example.When placed within a brick-and-mortar retail store, a beacon can facilitate online-offline Attribution and Ad targeting.

Behavioral data

Information collected about the actions of online users – for example, their past searches, browsing history, amount of time spent on a website, ads they clicked on and other information about their interactions with the website.

Behavioral targeting

A form of ad targeting that allows advertisers to display ads to users based on behavioral data known about them.

Big data

The term “big data” refers to extremely large sets of data that can be analyzed to reveal patterns and trends. It aims to deepen and drive the conversation and uncover ways in which the entire ecosystem can benefit through shared information and expertise.

Bid request

A request sent from a supply-side platform (SSP) or ad exchange to a bidder (part of a DSP). The request contains various pieces of information about the context of the ad (page content, URL, etc.) and the user (e.g. cookie data). Based on the data in the bid request, the bidder can match it against the advertiser’s campaign criteria and decide whether or not to bid on the impression.


A component of a Demand-side platform (DSP) that analyzes bid requests and places bids in Real-time bidding (RTB). It follows a specific set of rules used during the bidding process.

Bidding strategy

The strategy used to determine how the DSP’s bidder should place bids in an RTB auction. Examples of bidding strategies include fixed price and dynamic price.


A list of publishers or websites that an advertiser doesn’t want to buy ad space on.

Bot Fraud

Non-human traffic bots designed to generate fake ad impressions. These impressions or ads have zero chance of being seen by a human.


A company's product line and the image and reputation of that line. Many stakeholders in the ad tech industry have guidelines or requirements for the use of branding in creatives.

Brand advertising

Today’s ongoing digital transformation has caused an evolution of brand advertising. Consumers have shifted in the way they think about businesses and the ways in which they interact with brands. They expect more from these interactions and brands need to step up and deliver. Brand advertising today involves more direct, targeted advertisements that create more relevant connections with the intended audience.

Brand Safety

The set of measures that aim to protect the brand’s image from the negative or harmful influence of inappropriate or questionable content on the publisher’s site where the ad impression is served. Context brand safety is one of the crucial points of any RTB process that guarantees the image, reputation, and data safety for the advertiser’s brand.

Broadcast addressable TV

One-to-one household targeting of advertising on TV across all TV screens (i.e. Linear TV, TVE, VOD and SVOD).

Broadcast TV

A television broadcast (noun) is a program that is transmitted one-to-many over airwaves for public reception. The broadcast is accessible by anyone with a receiver tuned to the right signal channel. Because it uses the public airwaves, broadcasts are subject to regulation by the FCC. The signal is sometimes allowed to be retransmitted by the owner through other means beyond the airwaves, such as via a cable or satellite system.


A set of ideas or common theme to market a specific brand or product. In an online advertising sense, however, a campaign also refers to the buying strategy (e.g. targeting, placement, and cost) for purchasing inventory.


A metric that is counted every time someone clicks on an ad, even if the person doesn’t reach the website (such as when it’s temporarily unavailable).

Click log

A server-side log of predefined information gathered when when a user clicks on an ad.

Click URL

If a publisher is being paid on a CPC basis and wants to track clicks, they can provide click-tracking URL where it is possible to ping them each time a user clicks on an ad. Click URLs can also be used by to record clicks en route to a landing page.

Click-through rate (CTR)

The percentage of ad impressions that were clicked on. CTR = number of clicks ÷ number of impressions. This is a very important number to know as it offers a good idea of the performance of an ad. For example, if there is a high CTR, that generally means that the ad is compelling and attractive to that particular audience. If the CTR is low, the advertiser may need to improve the offer, copy, and visual elements of the ad.


A group of connected servers accessed remotely. If an AdTech platform is cloud-based or offered as SaaS, it means the software is hosted on cloud infrastructure rather than on the vendor’s or user’s computer or infrastructure.

Comma Separated values (CVS)

A data file structured in a table form with fields separated by commas. This is one file format used to transmit multiple creative tags during bulk sending.

Connected TV

Real-time buying of live TV ads airing on internet-enabled over-the-top (OTT) devices or smart TV applications. Connected TV ads are sold as impressions using software automation and advanced data, reaching viewers who stream content on demand. Ad spots are purchased when a viewers matches your desired audience, creative messaging then appears in full-screen, 100% viewable environments.

Consent-management platform (CMP)

Consent management is a process which allows websites to meet the regulatory requirements regarding consent collection. With a consent-management platform (CMP) in place, websites have the technical capability to inform visitors about the types of data they’ll collect and ask for their consent for specific data-processing purposes.

Consumer insights allow agencies, media companies, and advertisers to better understand who their best customers are and which campaigns are excelling. Consumer insights are derived from analysis of available collected data.

Container Tag

Many advertisers and their media buyers use a number of tags for tracking impressions, clicks, conversions, and other data. Some use tag containers to manage these disparate pixel tags and make it easier to change them via a single source. When a page loads, the tag container code displays the code for all tags stored within the container.

Content marketing / management software

Content marketing or management software helps marketers determine and manage a user’s end-to-end content process. Content software is typically used to create, store and manage content; track content by date; assign workflows; assign user permissions; distribute content, and/or analyze content effectiveness.

Content Recommendations

Content recommendations are content pieces that are suggested or recommended to web users on the web page they are visiting. Content recommendations are served via discovery platforms such as Outbrain. They are designed to enhance the experience of the reader by suggesting articles that may interest them, based on their past online activity. Content recommendation space is purchased by advertisers, who create and provide relevant content that is automatically served to users on publisher sites via content recommendation widgets. Content recommendations are similar to native ads. They provide interesting and useful information to targeted users while they browse the internet. Content recommendations are often denoted by a title such as “You May Like This” or “Recommended Posts”.

Content-delivery network (CDN)

A globally distributed network of proxy servers deployed in multiple data centers for the purpose of serving content to end users with minimum latency and a fast loading time. In AdTech, creatives are often hosted in CDNs to ensure they are shown to users as soon as possible.

Contextual data

Information on the contents of a web page, such as URL, keywords, categories and tags.

Contextual targeting

Targeting that allows advertisers to display relevant ads based on the website’s content rather than using the data about the visitor. Contextual targeting was widely used before the advent of the internet in magazine and newspaper ads.


An action performed by a user in response to an ad or message displayed to them. Examples include signing up for a service, filling in a form, making a purchase, or downloading a file, software, etc. See cost per acquisition/action (CPA) for information on the payment model.

Conversion funnel

This describes the path a consumer takes from seeing an ad or otherwise hearing about a brand or concept (the broad end of the funnel) to possibly navigating an e-commerce website and finally taking a desired action such as making a purchase (the narrow end of the funnel). In a simplistic example, many users see an ad, fewer click, fewer visit a site, fewer purchase. Various stages of the funnel may be used as a proxy for measuring the effectiveness of advertising, and funnel events do not need to be linear.

Conversion pixel

A pixel placed on a web page used to track various conversions, such as downloads, ad clicks and purchases.

Conversion rate (CVR)

The percentage of clicks that resulted in a conversion. CVR = number of conversions ÷ number of clicks.


A small text file saved by a browser and stored on a user’s device that contains pieces of information about the user. Cookies are one of the most important parts of online advertising. They allow Publishers, advertisers, and AdTech companies to identify users across different websites, target them with specific ads, and report on and measure campaigns.

Cookie syncing

The process of sharing a user identifier stored in a Cookie between platforms in order to exchange information about the user. The main goal of Cookie syncing is to improve Ad targeting.

Cost per action (CPA) / effective cost per action (eCPA)

The pricing model of advertising campaigns in which an advertiser pays per conversion (e.g. file download or form registration). CPA = total cost of campaign ÷ number of conversions. This covers a range of other options depending on the goal of the ad, including cost per download (CPD) and cost per install (CPI). One of the main advantages of the CPA model is that advertisers only pay for the results, essentially removing any false results found in other pricing models, such as fake views with the CPM model (see cost per mille). eCPA means effective cost per acquisition and is used to show what the CPA would have been if the advertiser purchased conversions instead of impressions or clicks

Cost per click (CPC) / effective cost per click (eCPC)

The price an advertiser is charged for each click the ad receives. CPC = total cost of campaign ÷ number of clicks. CPC rates minimize the risk for advertisers since they only pay when someone actually clicks on their ad – but rates can go quite high, up to as much as $20 per click or more, especially when targeting high-demand audiences or popular phrases on Google. eCPC means effective cost per click and is used to show what the CPC would have been if the advertiser purchased clicks instead of impressions or conversions.

Cost per completed view (CPCV)

If an ad includes a video or animation, the advertiser could choose to pay via the CPCV model, but only if a user watches it to the end. One area of concern with both CPM and CPCV models is ensuring that users, rather than bots, actually viewed an ad (viewable impression).

Cost per Install (CPI)

Cost per install or CPI is a pricing model used in mobile user acquisition campaigns in which app advertisers pay each time a user installs their app from their ad. CPI is a very common pricing model, and is specific for mobile apps only.

Cost per mille (CPM) / effective cost per mille (eCPM)

The price an advertiser pays for 1,000 impressions. Mille means “thousand” in Latin. Because the actual cost per single impression is very, very small (sometimes as little as $.0015), the rate advertisers pay is calculated in cost per thousand. CPM = total cost of campaign ÷ total number of impressions x 1,000. eCPM is used to show what the CPM would have been if the advertiser purchased impressions instead of clicks or conversions.

Cost per mille viewable impressions (vCPM)

vCPM or CPVM goes one step further than Cost per mille (CPM) / effective cost per mille (eCPM) in that the advertiser only pays for every 1,000 viewable impressions – i.e. those that were actually seen by the user.

Consumer insights

A payment model in which advertisers agree to pay the cost of media plus an additional CPM or % profit margin on top.


An ad creative is an object that contains all the data for visually rendering the ad itself.

Creative tag

A piece of code indicating where the creative should be placed.


Cross-device marketing allows agencies, media companies and advertisers to deliver brand messages to consumers at the right time, in the right format and on the right device. The underlying foundation of cross-device marketing is a technology that links together various identifiers associated with a digital consumer. This linking forms a holistic profile of an individual, which enables marketing professionals to address and understand actual people, instead of devices.

Cross-device attribution

Cross-device attribution assigns a value to each device in the path to purchase, enabling agency teams and advertisers to better understand their consumers’ behavior and more intelligently invest their budgets. Traditional, single-device attribution assumes all message exposure and activity occurs on the same device, whereas cross-device attribution knows that a single user often has access to multiple devices on which message exposure and activity can occur.

Customer insights/analysis software

Customer insights/analysis software, also known as customer intelligence software, helps marketing professionals analyze available customer data and past behaviors in order to inform future marketing strategies. This category of software is typically used to segment customers into sub-groups, track customers as they move across segments over time, predict future behaviors of customers, determine customer lifetime value, and access machine-based learning recommendations to improve future marketing efforts.

Customer relationship management (CRM) software

Customer relationship management (CRM) software is a category that covers a broad set of applications designed to help businesses manage customer data and track customer interactions. These programs are typically used by Sales and Marketing departments and allow teams to access business information, track leads and opportunities, manage business contracts, manage employee, vendor and partner relationships and provide customer support.

Customer-data platform (CDP)

A platform used by marketers to store data collected from various sources. With a central repository of customer and campaign data, marketers can get a better understanding of their audiences and improve targeting, attribution and messaging.


A media-buying process where a publisher’s ad server loads ad-network, SSP and ad-exchange tags one by one. A daisy chain can also refer to the situation where data or information is passed on from one AdTech platform to others – for example, when a user’s consent status is passed onto many different platforms.

Data broker

A business that collects user data from a range of sources and sells it to online advertising companies, such as Data-management platform (DMP)s and Demand-side platform (DSP)s. Data brokers collect the data directly (e.g. via tags on a web page) and purchase it from companies, like credit card companies, for example. Advertisers then use this data to improve targeting during online media buys.

Data onboarding

The process of taking offline customer information and integrating it with online customer data. By integrating offline and online data, advertisers are able to create complete audience segments and use them for ad targeting.

Data provider

A business that provides data about users. Advertisers can use the information to better target users. This data may include enriched user data or contextual data that exchanges, ad servers, or ad networks may not gather or manage in-house, but use in ad targeting. Data privacy laws ban the collection of information that is deemed to be " personally identifiable ," such as physical addresses, credit card numbers, and social security/taxpayer ID numbers (among other things) without the permission of the individual.

Data usage policy

Marketing professionals have a need to tailor data usage based on local regulations and marketing objectives. Policy control allows agencies and advertisers to effortlessly apply the right mix of data and targeting to meet their needs. For example, a pharmaceutical advertiser may desire a more restrictive policy to ensure that their advertisements only target their specific customers.

A specialized platform that collects and integrates first-, second- and third-party data from various sources in order to make them actionable and usable for advertisers. A DMP is used by both advertisers and publishers to create Audience segment, which can then be used for Ad targeting and content personalization, among other things.

Day part

In broadcast programming, dayparting is the practice of dividing the broadcast day into several parts, in which a different type of radio or television program apropos for that time period is aired.


Dynamic creative optimization (DCO) is a display ad technology that creates personalized ads based on data about the viewer at the moment of ad serving.


A Deal ID or AdID is a parameter passed between a bid request and bid response to enable one-to-one programmatic buying. Standardized IDs are critical to the success of any open standards.


The process within certain AdTech platforms (Ad servers, Supply-side platform (SSP)s, Demand-side platform (DSP)s and Ad exchanges) whereby the platform decides which ad to serve based on the advertiser’s campaign criteria (targeting, placement, bidding strategy, etc).


The removal of duplicate data entries from databases and audience segments in AdTech platforms. Duplication occurs when advertisers run campaigns on multiple AdTech platforms, resulting in the creation of different cookies and device IDs of the same user.

A default creative is a creative that runs as a backup in an open Internet ad space, in the case that no other creatives are available. A default creative can be a literal creative, say an in-house ad, or it can be a redirect in the form of a third-party ad tag to a third-party ad server. A default creative may also be called a "reserve creative.

Default tag

If no impression can be found for an ad opportunity, a default tag may be served. The tag is passed to a third-party ad server to see if demand can be found there (this happens in the case of daisy chaining) or to simply pull a creative from that server. Sometimes called a passback.


Advertising demand, or the desire to buy ad space and display creatives.

Demand-side platform (DSP)

Demographic data

Data about a user, such as their age, gender, income and job title. This data is often collected by brands directly and sometimes sold to Data brokers. Advertisers use this data for ad targeting by adding it to Audience segments.

Deterministic data

Deterministic data, or first-party data, is the one-to-one matching of two or more data sets based on unique identifiers. Cross-device marketing using deterministic data creates links between devices with a 100% level of confidence using login or subscriber data. For example, a user will log into a streaming music service with the same login on their desktop and mobile app. This will confirm that those devices belong to the same individual. Although highly accurate, this type of data is limited in scale.

Deterministic matching

The process of identifying the same user across different devices via a unique and persistent identifier, such as an email address. Thanks to deterministic matching, advertisers, AdTech platforms and Publishers are able to identify users across different devices, browsers, and channels, allowing them to improve Ad targeting, analytics and Attribution. Applications like Facebook, Google Apps and Twitter can deterministically match users on different devices (smartphones, laptops, tablets, etc.) as they require them to sign in with an email address to access their services across different devices.

A process used to identify a device or browser based on its specific and unique configuration. Unlike web cookies that are stored client-side (on a user’s device), device fingerprints need to be stored server-side (in a database). Device fingerprints are used for analytics, ad targeting and Attribution.

Device graphs

Also known as identity management. A device graph describes how different devices, i.e. a laptop, smartphone and TV, relate to each other by mapping of all the devices, IDs, and associated data back to one unique user or household.

Daisy chain

Digital advertising is the practice of using digital technologies to deliver advertisements to consumers. It allows advertisers and marketers to reach specific target audiences more effectively and efficiently than traditional advertising, such as print, static billboards or traditional cable TV.

Digital Advertising Alliance (DAA)

"An industry association responsible for self-regulation. The DAA consists of many online advertising companies. "

Digital advertising software

Digital advertising software is a broad category that covers data management platforms (DMPs), ad exchanges, supply-side platforms (SSPs) and, less commonly, demand-side platforms (DSPs). These four technologies form the broader digital advertising ecosystem. Within this ecosystem, large amounts of data are collected, integrated and managed by the DMP. Publishers connect their inventory to ad exchanges and DSPs and buyers purchase advertising inventory directly from an ad exchange, ad network or via a DSP.

Digital marketing

Digital marketing is the marketing of products or services using digital channels to reach the desired audience. It is an innovative, strategic approach, providing new strategies for interpreting data and making real-time business decisions based on the insights it provides.

Digital media

Digital media in the advertising industry typically refers to digital advertising assets, such as the ad or creative element. Digital media includes digital video, banner ads, search, social media promotion, mobile banners, mobile video, digital audio and more. It can be created, viewed, distributed, modified and preserved on digital devices.

Direct Marketing Assotiation (DMA)

An independent nonprofit organization of "data-driven marketers" whose stated mission is to "advance and protect responsible data-driven marketing".

Direct response

A term applied to marketing or advertising that is designed to solicit a direct response which is specific and quantifiable. In online display advertising, examples of this can include clicking on an ad, making a purchase, signing up for a newsletter, and so on.

Display Ad Networks

An online advertising network or ad network is a company that connects advertisers to websites that want to host advertisements. The key function of an ad network is an aggregation of ad supply from publishers and matching it with advertiser's demand.

Display advertising

The image and text-based advertisements users see across the internet on web pages in both desktop and mobile browsers. It is the earliest form of online advertising and still very popular among advertisers. Other forms of online advertising include search, video, mobile (ads in apps) and native.


Designated market area or demographic metropolitan area. A geographic area originally defined as a group of counties that made up a cohesive television market. May also stand for the Direct Marketing Association.

DMA OBA compliance

The Direct Marketing Association has been heavily involved in creating guidelines for online behavioral advertising (OBA), or advertising to people surfing the Internet based on their past browsing history.

Dynamic creative

A type of advertisement in which the content, design and layout change based on data known about the context of the web page and behavior of the user.

Dynamic pricing

The cost of an impression during real-time bidding (RTB) auctions, which can change depending on data known about a particular user.The opposite of dynamic pricing is fixed pricing, which refers to the fixed cost of ad inventory.


eCPA means effective cost per acquisition and is used to show what the CPA would have been if the advertiser purchased conversions instead of impressions or clicks


eCPC means effective cost per click and is used to show what the CPC would have been if the advertiser purchased clicks instead of impressions or conversions.


eCPM is used to show what the CPM would have been if the advertiser purchased impressions instead of clicks or conversions.

Email marketing software

Email marketing software provides businesses with all of the tools needed to create and execute email marketing campaigns, including: templates, design tools and contact-management solutions. Email software sends emails out via its own server and provides analytics on the success of each campaign.

Engagement metrics

In online advertising, engagement metrics are the metrics used to measure consumers' engagement with the ads they encounter online. Engagement metrics are used by digital media buyers to gauge the effectiveness of their advertising. This is most easily done by direct marketers who use CPA buying strategies, but there are a variety of other ways to measure the impact of ads via engagement. Some possible engagement metrics include whether a user has watched an entire video ad, if a user hovers over a creative with a mouse, and whether a user has clicked on an ad. More generally, the term engagement metrics may also be applied to a range of online behaviors, such as how long a visitor spends on a website.


An ad exchange is a technology platform that facilitates the buying and selling of media advertising inventory from multiple ad networks. Prices for the inventory are determined through real-time bidding. The approach is technology-driven as opposed to the historical approach of negotiating price on media inventory.

Expandable Ad

Rich media creatives that can be enlarged beyond the initial dimensions of the placements they fill on web pages.


Fill rate

"How much of a Publisher‘s available inventory is sold, displayed as a percentage. Fill rate = ad impressions generated in the ad space ÷ total inventory available on that ad space."

First Look

Providing the client with an exceptional right to the ad inventory that positively impacts the number of buyers and stimulates the demand for the inventory. The “first look” tactic enables the buyers to buy the inventory for the fixed or minimal price, without the necessity to take part in the auction. Such privilege is usually provided to the buyer in return for the guarantee to commit the purchase.

First Party Data

First-party data is collected and owned by the party who collected it (brand, media company, etc.) about the consumer or household. This could include CRM data or data generated by digital properties, such as “this person uses my mobile app”, or “this person has been browsing for minivans on my website”. This data is proprietary and not available in the broader marketplace due to limits on its use.

First touch

An attribution model in which gives credit for the first impression a user saw. This may be used as an alternative to the last view/last click model, which gives credit for the last viewed or clicked ad.

First-party cookie

A cookie created by the domain the user is visiting. First-party cookies are used to remember language settings, which items a user has added to their shopping cart, and also for analytics.

First-price auctions

In the first-price auction model (also known as an English auction) the bidders pay exactly what they bid. It’s a model used in art auctions. For example: Bidder A bids $4.00, Bidder B bids $4.50 and Bidder C bids $4.20. Bidder B wins and pays $4.50. The first-price auction requires the winner to pay the full price they bid.


The lifetime of a campaign, from its start date to its end date. A campaign can also have no flight dates and continue indefinitely. A campaign that is active is said to be "in flight".

Floor optimizations

Various tactics implemented by publishers to maximize their yield via various adjustments of auction mechanics with soft and hard floors.

Floor Price

The minimum price as defined by the publisher for which inventory can be sold.

Frequency capping

Frequency capping involves limiting the number of times the same ad is shown to one visitor (e.g. 3 Impressions per visitor per 24 hours). Advertisers implement frequency capping to avoid wasting their budget, improve the campaign’s reach and prevent frustrating the user by showing them the same ad over and over in a short timeframe.

Full episode player (FEP)

A full episode player (FEP) features an epsiode of a program that may have previously aired on TV.


General Data-Protection Regulation (GDPR)

A regulation – also known as Regulation (EU) 2016/679 in official contexts – spearheaded by the three legislative European Union institutions: the European Parliament, European Commission, and Council of the European Union. It replaced the Data-Protection Directive (Directive 95/46/EC) when it came into force on May 25, 2018. The goal of the GDPR is to return control to data subjects (citizens) in the union over their data and make the regulatory environment simpler for international business.

Geo-targeting (zoning)

Geo-targeting and zoning, sometimes used interchangeably, refers to the method of delivering specific content based on a user’s location. It involves the practice of reaching a geographically-defined universe through cable zones, creative versioning (AdTag/AdCopy), or household aggregation.

Guaranteed buy

A guaranteed buy, also known as “programmatic direct” or “programmatic guaranteed”, is the direct sale of reserved ad inventory between a buyer and seller, with automation replacing the manual insertion order (IO) process. This inventory is sometimes categorized as premium, sold upfront, reserved, guaranteed, first-look, direct sold or class-1. Guaranteed buys allow the publisher to regulate the price of inventory to buyers. It also gives buyers the ability to transparently buy more premium inventory on a direct basis from the publisher. Transparency includes price and inventory type.


Hard-floor price

The minimum price a Publisher will accept for impressions. Bids that are below this minimum price are simply discarded. This means Publishers will not take any bids below the Hard-floor price.

Header bidding (HB)

A process used by publishers to collect multiple bids from demand sources (e.g. Demand-side platform (DSP)s and Ad networks via Supply-side platform (SSP)s and Ad exchanges) simultaneously. Publishers add a header-bidding tag (a wrapper) in between the tag of their website, hence the name header bidding. The whole aim of header bidding is to collect the highest bid before the Publisher‘s Ad server is called. This allows advertisers to compete with a Publisher‘s premium and direct deals, which not only allows advertisers to buy Premium inventory, but also enables Publishers to get the highest Cost per mille (CPM) / effective cost per mille (eCPM) possible.

Household data

Household data is data collected from non-personal devices that are shared within households, such as a television set or a desktop computer for a family. Household data has broad scale but less precision at an individual consumer level, given the shared nature of the targeted devices in question. Traditionally, this is a common way television advertising has been bought–with an entire household in mind.



An ad view, counted every time a Creative (ad) is served to a user.

In-App Advertising

The advertisement type that is integrated into the mobile apps, includes banners and videos that are displayed right in the context and ecosystem of an app.

In-banner video

In-Banner Video (IBV) In-banner video ads are video ads triggered within a standard display banner ad on a webpage. They usually follow standard Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB) banner sizes (e.g., 300 x 250).

In-house programmatic

In-house programmatic is the practice of bringing all programmatic activities in-house. Some of the benefits offered by bringing programmatic in-house are cost-savings and flexibility.

In-Stream Video

The advertisement that is shown before, during or after video watching, the same way it can be displayed during the game or any kind of animation. Such kind of ad appears in the player environment of streamable content, and duration if which can reach 15 to 30 seconds. The typical pricing model for the in-stream video is cost-per-view.


Also called a virtual machine, virtual operating system, or virtual server, an instance is an individual guest operating system that runs on top of a virtualization layer on top of a physical server. Instances are the building blocks of cloud computing.

Intelligent tracking prevention (ITP)

A privacy feature of Webkit, an open-source web-browser engine that powers Apple’s Safari web browser, introduced in the release of Safari 11 and iOS 11. ITP changes the way Safari handles First-party cookies, specifically by blocking First-party cookies used for tracking, Retargeting and attribution.

Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB)

An online ad industry association focused on the growth of the interactive advertising marketplace whose stated goal is to educate "marketers, agencies, media companies and the wider business community about the value of interactive advertising". Read more at the IAB's website.

Internet TV

Internet television (or online television) is the digital distribution of television content via the public Internet, which also carries other types of data. Dedicated terrestrial television, cable television, and satellite television systems carry video only.

Interstitial Ad

Interstitial ads are full-screen ads that cover the interface of an app or a mobile website page. While banners take some part of the space, interstitials cover the whole phone screen and make users interact with them.


Ad inventory is the total amount of space that a publisher has available for advertisements at any given time. The term is usually used in reference to online advertising but also applies to print and other traditional media


JSON stands for JavaScript Object Notation. JSON is a lightweight data-interchange format, language independent, "self-describing" and easy to understand format



Landing page

The page on which a user lands, or is directed to after clicking an ad. For example, if a user clicks an ad, they may be directed to, or to or some other Landing page chosen by the advertiser.

Last click

A type of attribution model that pays out on the last impression that was clicked on by the user. This may be used as an alternative to the first touch model, which gives credit for the first impression a user saw.

Last view

A type of attribution model that pays out on the last impression that was viewed by the user. This may be used as an alternative to the first touch model, which gives credit for the first impression a user saw.

Life Time Value (LTV)

LTV is a prediction of the net profit attributed to an ongoing relationship between customer and product. By providing a running estimate on how much a particular consumer is likely to spend on that app, LTV helps set marketing budgets and ensures that companies pursue the most effective users.


The percent increase in performance (measured in ROI, CPC, CPA, etc.) that can be attributed to advertising (or some other marketing endeavor).

Linear TV

Linear TV refers to traditional television viewing. In order to watch a show, the viewer must tune into the specific channel of the broadcaster at the appointed time. Viewers cannot pause or replay the content.

Live streaming

Live streaming refers to content that is delivered live over the Internet. It requires a form of source media (e.g. a video camera, an audio interface, screen capture software), an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, and a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content. Some examples of Live Streaming in TV include Sling TV, live content on CBS All Access, or NBC streaming SuperBowl XLIX.

Long-form video

Long-form video is video content that adheres to traditional episodic lengths. Generally, long-form video is 30 minutes or longer and typically increases at 30-minute increments.


Ad inventory with relatively low exposure or limited users, such as a personal blog with a very low number of followers, or numerous less desirable users, such as people who are very young, have minimal disposable income, or other factors that would make them unlikely consumers of a product or service. The long tail can be difficult to monetize.

Look-alike modeling

Finding groups of people (audiences) who look and act like the best, most profitable customers of a brand or advertiser. For example, if the best audience of an online store is people whose average purchase is over $100, who buy cosmetics and perfumes, and who make a purchase at least twice a month, Look-alike modeling would allow the store to find more people like that.

Lookback window

An amount of time taken into account when collecting data to be used for attributing conversions, a bid optimization model, or anything else. Common lookback windows are a day, 14 days, 30 days, etc.



A portmanteau of the words marketing, advertising and technology coined by David Raab to describe the current trend in the development of technology platforms: the hybridization of AdTech and MarTech. MadTech aims to provide the most complete view of a customer across all channels. It is all about data, connectedness and a seamless use of a number of technologies and data sources including big data, internet of things (IoT) and machine learning.

Manual media-buying

The process whereby an advertiser purchases ad space directly from a Publisher, without the use of AdTech platforms (Ad servers, Demand-side platform (DSP)s, and Supply-side platform (SSP)s). This was how ads were purchased in the early days of online advertising. The opposite of manual media-buying is Programmatic media-buying, which includes many different types of methods, such as Real-time bidding (RTB), programmatic direct and private marketplaces (PMP). Even though many large Publishers and advertisers still buy and sell ads via their sales teams, many of them use programmatic platforms such as Ad servers to automate the delivery and reporting process.


Generally a large advertiser that manages at least some of its own digital advertising. Also called a direct marketer.

Marketing analytics

Marketing analytics is the process of measuring, managing and analyzing the performance of overall and individual marketing initiatives. Business metrics such as return on investment (ROI), marketing attribution and overall marketing effectiveness are used to determine the total effectiveness of a marketing program. Understanding marketing analytics allows agency teams and advertisers to be more efficient at their jobs and minimize wasted web marketing dollars.


The technologies and processes used for creating, managing and measuring all digital marketing activities.

Media activation

Media activation refers to the unification of everything that media buyers need to understand their audience segments in order to execute real-time bidding.

Media buying

Media buying is the process of purchasing advertising space. Today, media buying is typically completed digitally, which allows agencies or advertisers to make algorithmic purchases of advertising space in real-time using computers.

Media Plan

A holistic view of a given advertiser's media buys. Often managed by a media agency.

Mediated ad network

An ad network that sits outside of RTB auctions for online inventory, but participates in auctions alongside real-time bidders and direct advertisers by setting up proxy “bids” that represent that network’s demand.


The process of sending bid requests to ad buyers outside of the Xandr exchange via a client or server side redirection, with passbacks in case the buyer doesn’t fill the impression. Mediation enables access to additional ad networks to maximize fill rates. There are two main categories of mediation: web mediation and mobile mediation.


Metadata is data about data. Metadata can be used to do things like label creatives or ad inventory with information like brand, size, and other constraints or data.


In the marketing and advertising industry, “mobile” generally refers to the use of techniques and campaigns that specifically target audiences on their mobile devices. Mobile is often viewed as a market sector that allows for greater engagement and connections, forming a bridge to help join the consumer and advertiser.

Mobile Ad Sizes

Due to the smaller screen sizes of mobile devices, mobile ads are optimized for small formats, and come in a range of sizes. The most popular mobile ad size is 300 x 250, which is a medium sized rectangle, also used widely for mobile video ads. Other common mobile ads size are the mobile banner, which is 350 x 50 and appears as a horizontal strip ad, and the large rectangle, which is 336 x 280.

Mobile advertising is paid advertising that occurs on mobile phones or devices that have a wireless internet connection. Mobile ads can be display ads published on mobile websites by mobile ad networks, or can be promoted in mobile applications as in-app ads.

Mobile device ID

A unique identifier for a mobile device. The device ID cannot be linked to personally identifiable information (PII). Different operating systems use different identifiers: IDFA (iOS), AAID (Android), and Windows Advertising ID (Windows).

Mobile Advertising

An official application-programming interface (API) that’s used to display rich-media ads in mobile apps. Rich-media creators use MRAID’s standardized set of commands, which are designed to work with HTML5 and JavaScript (JS), to execute a range of functions, such as expanding the ad, resizing it and gaining access to some mobile-device functionality. As mobile devices run on different operating systems, and apps are built using different languages, MRAID eliminates the need to create different rich media ads for all the different mobile devices and apps.



Owned and operated. In online advertising, a type of publisher that both owns and operates its inventory sources. Different from a managed publisher, which does not own and operate its inventory sources but has a financial relationship with those who do.

Online advertising

Any type of advertising that occurs on the internet is considered online advertising. Online advertising comes in many forms, including display advertising, search engine advertising, email advertising, social media advertising, content recommendations, mobile advertising (app advertising). There are many challenges that come with online advertising, such as ‘ad fatigue’, when people tire of seeing online ads, rendering them ineffective, and the increasing popularity of ad blockers, which prevent ads from appearing on the user’s device. According to recent stats, 11% of the online population worldwide is blocking internet ads.


Omni-channel refers to the creation of a seamless user experience across all facets of the customer’s path to purchase. Finding the right tools and partners to unify your campaigns, no matter the channel, and give you a 360 degree understanding of your customer is no longer a luxury – it’s a necessity. Technology is making it easier to measure and market across the entire customer journey.


An open-source protocol developed in conjunction with a consortium of demand- and Supply-side platform (SSP)s, adopted by Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB). OpenRTB is a standard of communication between buyers and sellers of Real-time bidding (RTB)advertising, allowing AdTech platform (Demand-side platform (DSP)s, Supply-side platform (SSP)s, and Ad exchanges) to speak the same language when conducting online media transactions.


Optimization in digital advertising refers to the process of changing the current inventory mix to improve a certain metric in order to increase a campaign’s potential to meet its desired objective or outcome.


Paid advertising is any type of advertising that is paid for. It stands in contrast to owned advertising (ads promoted on the advertiser’s own channels, such as its own company website, YouTube channel or social media pages), or earned advertising (writeups in magazines, blogs, websites, influencer platforms, product reviews etc, produced by a third party without being commissioned or solicited by the advertiser). Types of paid advertising include PPC (pay per click), PPI (pay per impression) and display ads, or banner ads.


In AdTech, a passback occurs where an ad network or ad exchange can’t reach the floor CPM or when no paid ads are found to deliver. When this occurs, the ad request is passed back to the publisher’s ad server so it can send the request to another network.I

Personally identifiable information (PII)

Information that, on its own or when combined with other data, can be used to identify an individual person in the real world. Examples include name, address, email address and driver’s license. Pixel is generally not collected in online advertising due to various privacy laws; instead, non-PII is collected (device IDs, IP addresses, cookies, etc). Pixel is a term used in the US, with personal data being a predominantly European term with a few slight differences in meaning.

A PHP session allows you to store user information on a server for later use. However, session information is temporary and will be deleted after the user has left a website. Sessions work by creating a unique ID (UID) for each visitor and storing variables based on this UID. The UID is either stored in a cookie or is propagated in the URL.


This term usually refers specifically to a piggybacked pixel. When pixel A has pixel B piggybacked on to it, then the firing of pixel A causes the firing of pixel B. This second firing can either be via a redirect or a server-side firing. Piggyback pixels may be used for tracking conversions in secondary systems.


When firing one Pixel causes pixels from other platforms to fire. Piggybacking is used for cookie syncing and conversion tracking.


A piece of JavaScript code, or a pixel (literally a 1×1 image), added to web pages, typically in the footer. When the page loads a pixel, a cookie is created, which allows advertisers to collect behavioral data, attribute conversions and run ad-retargeting campaigns.

Paid media or paid advertising

A term describing the object that represents a piece of inventory. Publishers embed placements into web pages' ad tags. This same object may also be called an ad tag or an ad unit, but this is slighting inaccurate, as placements contain tags and represent units of available ad space.


An ad that displays in a secondary browser window directly behind the initial browser window.

Pop-up ad

An ad displayed on the top of a web page.

Post-click engagement

Important metric for performance marketers to optimize campaigns. KPIs such as click rates (on the landing page) or time on site of existing users are analyzed in order to bid on new users who are likely to show the highest engagement.


PPC, which stands for Pay Per Click, is an internet advertising model used to drive traffic to a website or landing page.


There are a few types of Pay Per Click ads. Search ads, which appear in search listings or on the sidebar of results pages of search engines such as Google or Bing, social media ads, display/banner ads published on ad networks, mobile ads published on mobile apps and networks, and native ads delivered via content discovery platforms are all different types of PPC ads.

PPC Advertising

In Pay Per Click (PPC) advertising, the advertiser pays a fee every time there is a click on their ad. The cost of the click is determined by how many clicks occur within the designated time frame and budget of the advertising campaign. If an ad is only clicked a few times, then the cost per click will be higher. For example, let’s say an advertiser runs an ad campaign for a week, with a set budget of $50. If the ad is clicked 10 times, then the cost per click is $5. If that ad is clicked 100 times, then the cost per click is $0.50.

PPC Advertising Networks

PPC advertising networks are online advertising ecosystems that publish ads via the PPC model. Examples of PPC advertising networks include search engine and display ad networks, such as Google Adwords and Bing Ads, and social media advertising networks, like Facebook Audience Network or Linkedin Sponsored Ads. Another example of PPC advertising networks are native advertising and content recommendation platforms such as Outbrain. Besides the larger, popular and highly competitive PPC advertising networks, there are numerous other independent and niche PPC ad networks, such as SiteScout,, and mobile ad networks such as Airpush and Inmobi.

Pre-Bid Targeting

Data that enables advertisers to target visible, fraud-proof, brand-safe or contextually relevant inventory, and bid only on inventory that meets the pre-defined requirements.

Preferred Deal

This is a non-auction model of buying with a fixed display price and no guarantee for inventory realization. Preferred deals do not offer the booking of inventory, they are characterized by the fixed price and the ability to buy impressions without taking part in the auction. Site owners create inventory blocks with fixed, pre-agreed prices that are available to advertisers outside auctions. The unsold inventories then passed to auctions.

Preffered Deal / Unreserved Fixed Rate

Deal variant in the private marketplace where a publisher or SSP offers inventory at a predefined price.

Premium inventory

Most often, a publisher’s most sought-after inventory, such as inventory on the homepage and frequently visited pages. Advertisers, however, often view premium inventory as inventory viewed by their target audience. This type of inventory is of higher value to advertisers, meaning it often carries a higher CPM. Also, premium inventory is often sold via direct and private marketplace deals, but can also be sold via RTB auctions.

Private Auction

Deal variant in the Private Marketplace where participation to bid on publisher inventory is restricted to selected advertisers. These auctions can involve several publishers and providers.

Private marketplace

An invite-only variation of the RTB model. While an auction is still conducted, just a handful of advertisers participate, bidding against one another to buy a publisher’s inventory (typically premium). This is in stark contrast to the typical open and public RTB auction. With PMP, advertisers reserve, or guarantee, their ads before the publisher offers them on the public RTB marketplace.

Probabilistic Data

Probabilistic data uses algorithms and patterns to connect devices with high levels of confidence. For example, if two devices always move together to the same locations, at the same time every day, they likely belong to the same individual. High-quality providers will use a truth set to validate the accuracy of their models. This type of data is generally reliable and scalable.

Probabilistic matching

"A method using various data sets and algorithms to identify (with high probability) the same user across different devices and applications. As each device has its own unique identifier (e.g. device ID and cookies), it’s hard to know whether it’s the same user on all those devices. Probabilistic matching is used when deterministic matching can’t be used, such as when there’s no common identifier connecting one user to multiple devices (like an email or social media account). It may also be used in combination with deterministic matching to improve match rates and enrich user profiles. See also deterministic matching."


The buying and selling of online media via automated systems (AdTech platforms). The opposite of programmatic media-buying is manual media-buying, whereby ads are bought and sold with human interaction (via sales people). While there still may be some human element involved in the process, most of the media buying and selling is done in an automated, or programmatic, fashion. There are many different types of programmatic media-buying, such as real-time bidding (RTB), programmatic direct and private marketplaces (PMP).

Programmatic Approach

A programmatic approach to advertising enables agencies and advertisers to optimize media in real-time across channels to ensure that advertising dollars perform as efficiently and effectively as possible. Programmatic media buying brings data science and the power of algorithmic decisioning to each and every impression purchased, which helps buyers deliver the right message to the right consumer at the right time with less effort and waste than traditional methods of media buying.

Programmatic buying

Programmatic buying is the process of executing transparent media planning and buying using automation. In most cases, programmatic buying is fueled by the use of advanced audience data through digital platforms such as exchanges, trading desks and demand-side platforms (DSPs), which helps create operational efficiency for both the buy and sell sides. Agencies use programmatic on behalf of their advertiser clients to increase marketing efficiency, helping them get more out of media budgets.

Programmatic direct

A one-to-one media-buying process similar to the traditional method whereby a Publisher‘s salespeople meet with advertisers in person to strike a deal. It is a very similar model to the private marketplace (PMP), but instead of holding an auction, advertisers and Publishers agree on specific inventory based on a fixed CPM.

Programmatic Linear

Programmatic linear is TV advertising that is purchased through an automated platform and delivered via set-top boxes. Targeting and reporting are based on traditional TV metrics (daypart, network, GRP).

Programmatic software

Programmatic media buying, marketing and advertising software enables agencies and advertisers to make algorithmic purchases of advertising space in real-time using computers. The term “programmatic software” is commonly used to refer to demand-side platforms (DSPs). It is used to automate the buying, placement and optimization of media inventory via a bidding system and typically helps agency teams achieve cost and time efficiencies while simultaneously enabling better targeting of, and personalized messaging to, advertising recipients.

Programmatic TV(PTV)

Programmatic TV refers to TV inventory that is planned, bought and sold on impressions using system automation with the use of advanced audience data, creating value and operational efficiency for both the buy and sell sides.

Programmatic video

Programmatic video refers to the process of buying and selling digital video ads. This process uses real-time data to better target specific audiences in the right place at the right time. It is generally carried out using ad tech such as a DSP.

Public relations (PR) software

PR software can be used to locate company press mentions, assess competitors’ share of voice, publish press releases, collect press analytics and push out pitches to journalists.


Any company, or person, that has a website or app and offers ad space to advertisers. Many publishers monetize their business by running ads on their website or app. Advertisers buy ad space on a publisher’s site or app because they want to reach that specific Audience segment.


Query string

A way to pass data to a web application as part of a URL. For example, at Xandr a buyer can target ads based on the information in the querystring. The query string comes after a "?" in the URL, for example:


Raw data

Raw data is source-level data that does not conform to an acceptable standard of parameterization or taxonomy. Raw data is data being generated before any data science is applied (human or machine).


Reach typically refers to the number of people who could potentially see an ad. If an advertiser sets very broad targeting – e.g. “females who live in the USA” – then their reach will be quite large. If they tighten their targeting – e.g. “females between the ages of 20-25 who live in Dublin, Ireland, and are interested in running shoes” – their reach will be rather small.

Real-time bidding (RTB)

The process of purchasing and selling digital ad space through real-time auctions that occur in the time it takes a webpage to load. In Real-time bidding (RTB) auctions, advertisers (via Demand-side platform (DSP)s) bid on individual impressions put forward from publishers (via Supply-side platform (SSP)s and Ad exchanges). The whole bidding process is super fast, usually taking less than 200 milliseconds. For perspective, it takes about 300 milliseconds to blink!

Recency capping

A way to limit the showing of an ad over time. For example, an advertiser might want to avoid showing an ad to a specific user ID more than once per hour.

Remnant inventory

Inventory that wasn’t sold via a publisher’s direct or premium campaigns. The term can also refer to one ad network filling unsold inventory for another ad network.


Displaying data about a campaign’s performance (cost, impressions, clicks, conversions, etc.) and budget.


In general, the term "request" can refer to any attempt by one's browser to retrieve a page, including page elements such as ads, from a server on the Internet. In ad tech it usually applies to a request for a creative or ad tag.


A method of showing users ads for products and services that they viewed or interacted with previously. There are many different forms of Retargeting, including display and email.

Return on investment (ROI)

A representation of how much a given investment or risk pays off. For example, an advertiser would look at the ROI of an ad campaign by analyzing how much profit it gained compared to its initial investment.

Rich Media

Rich media refers generally to media that has non-standard characteristics such as: Larger than ~40k, out-of-banner (OOB) behavior, features like "post to Facebook," plays video within a banner, or in-creative metrics collection. Expandable creatives are examples of rich media creatives.

Rotating Creative

When a single ad tag is set to send one of several different creatives. Brand and other guidelines for creative acceptance may set limits on how much creatives may vary when associated to a single tag. For example, Xandr bans a single tag from showing ads for multiple brands.

Run on exchange (ROE)

Inventory available for purchase on an Ad exchange.

Run on network (RON)

A targeting method that tells the platform to run the campaign across all sites in the ad network.

Run on site (ROS)

A targeting method that tells the platform to run the campaign on specific domains/publishers in the ad network.


Search Advertising

Search advertising is the promotion of ads on search engine listings or on the sidebar of search engine results pages (also known as SERPs). Search advertising is a very popular channel, largely due to the sheer volume of traffic seen by SERPs. It was estimated that there were 1.2 trillion searches on Google in 2017. When a person uses a search engine, they are actively looking for something – whether it be a product to buy, a service, or information. Search ads are regarded as extremely effective as they reach users when they are actively engaged with a search query, which means they are more likely to click and convert. Search ads are available on all search engines, such as Google. Bing, Yahoo and others.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO) software

Search engine optimization (SEO) software offers keyword suggestions and quality ratings to help businesses and content rank better in search results. SEO software can help organizations perform better than competitors in search and drive highly qualified website traffic.

Second Party Data

Second-party data is data that is collected or generated and owned by the publisher, made available to the buyer at the time of purchase. Could include consumer or household data that the publisher knows, or simply data about context and/or content.

Second-price auction

An auction type where the bidder pays a price equal to the second-highest bid plus $0.01, rather than their highest bid. The second-price auction model is widely applied in the world of programmatic. For years, it has allowed advertisers to bid high prices to secure impressions, but ultimately pay a much lower price.


A group composed of members of a target audience identified based on the webpages they visit, the actions they take such as making a purchase or completing a sign-up form, or data such as gender or geographical region.

Segment pixel

A pixel that marks a user as belonging to a certain segment. For example, an advertiser might place a segment pixel on the homepage and mark all visitors to the homepage as "homepage visitors."

Semantic targeting

In theory, semantic targeting means figuring out what the content on a webpage is really about and being able to place ads based on that content. For example, if a website says "sunny weather," is it about great beach vacations, or is it about skin cancer, and do you want to advertise flights to Florida on it or not? However, the term is often used by different people to mean slightly different things, and is often used to be synonymous with contextual targeting.

Shopper marketing

Shopper marketing is the process of using information gleaned from shopper behaviors and leveraging those insights to develop a more influential marketing mix. The purpose of shopper marketing is to increase brand awareness and consumption within the target audience, or shoppers.

Short-form video

Short-form video is video content that has a length less than that of traditional episodic TV programs (i.e. 22 minutes).

Site fraud

Site fraud is when the website owner or operator is knowingly engaged in practices to create false ad inventory or hide the true location of an ad. Site fraud occurs when domain operators obtain inventory and misrepresent it in the open markets to artificially increase its value.

Skin Creative

A creative that wraps, acts as a wallpaper, or otherwise surrounds page content with ad content.

Smart TV

A smart TV, sometimes referred to as a connected TV or hybrid TV, is a television set or set-top box with integrated Internet connectivity and features that can receive video programming through an open IP method outside of the traditional cable QAM transport. Connected TV is an example of innovative technological convergence between computers, televisions and set-top boxes. Well-known examples include Roku, Apple TV, Chromecast, or Samsung SmartTV.

Social Media Advertising

Any type of promotion on social networks is considered social media advertising. Platforms such as Facebook, Linkedin, Google +, Twitter, Tumblr, Instagram, Pinterest, Snapchat, YouTube, and others, have become a hugely popular advertising channel. From 2014 to 2016, the global social media advertising spend doubled, reaching $31 billion. There are two ways that you can promote your brand on social media: organic reach and paid ads. Organic reach is the number of people who may have been exposed to your social media post in their news feed. Organic reach is non-paid content distribution. The number of times a post is viewed organically will depend on how many times it has been liked and shared by others. Paid ads, on the other hand, are ads that the advertiser has paid for in order that they be distributed on the ad network of the social media platform. It is very difficult to reach large numbers of viewers with organic reach alone. Paid ads are necessary in order to drive traffic to your online assets via social media.

Social Media management software (SMMS)

Social media management software (SMMS) is software that facilitates an organization’s ability to successfully engage in social media activities across different communication channels. SMMS is typically used by marketers to monitor inbound and outbound conversations, document social marketing initiatives and evaluate the effectiveness of a company’s social media presence.

Soft-floor price

Since bidders may not necessarily know what the hard floor is, the concept of a soft price floor was implemented to “catch” the offers that fall only slightly below the hard floor and would otherwise get rejected with no yield for the publisher.

Streaming device

A streaming device is any internet-enabled device capable of receiving and displaying IP-distributed long-form content in its native resolution.

Subscription video on demand (SVOD)

Subscription video on demand (SVOD) services use a subscription business model, where subscribers are charged a monthly fee to access programming. These services include solutions like Netflix, Hulu Plus, Amazon Video and HBO.

Supply-side platform (SSP)

An advertising-technology platform used to sell a publisher’s ad space in an automated fashion, typically via Real-time bidding (RTB) auctions. SSPs are most often used by online publishers (websites and apps) to help them obtain the most Yield possible from their display, video, mobile and native ad inventory. In order to sell this available ad space, a Supply-side platform (SSP) connects with multiple ad exchanges and networks, which in turn offer the inventory to advertisers via Demand-side platform (DSP)s. Many of today’s SSPs include exchange mechanisms, meaning publishers can use Supply-side platform (SSP)s to manage their available inventory and sell it to Demand-side platform (DSP)s via Real-time bidding (RTB) auctions, rather than having to connect to multiple exchanges first.


Tag container

A container added to a website that includes various tags – e.g ad tags and analytics tags. Tag containers are usually added to a website and controlled via a tag-management system.

Tag-management system (TMS)

A container added to a website that includes various tags – e.g ad tags and analytics tags. Tag containers are usually added to a website and controlled via a tag-management system.


Targeting is the process of identifying the optimal audience segment for a media plan based on a set of desired characteristics. The segment can be either large or small, depending on the objective and parameters of the campaign. An ad buy is then executed against the media plan for the targeted segment.


A system for naming things and organizing them into groups based on their similarities. While traditionally used in science fields, such as biology, it is widely used in Data-management platform (DMP)s. Taxonomy in a Data-management platform (DMP) refers to creating a single naming convention for related things. For example, one system could use the word “user” while another uses “visitor”. The taxonomy in a Data-management platform (DMP) would unify these two terms and use one term for both.

Tech Tax

A term for the third-party costs incurred by the use of the many technological solutions and aids for programmatic booking. A booking may use a SSP, Ad Exchange, DSP, DMP and Agency Trading Desk.

Technology providers

Third-party entities who may assist various parties involved in Internet advertising by providing access to bidders or other technology.

Third-party cookie

A cookie saved in a domain other than the currently opened website. It is typically used by AdTech platforms to collect Behavioral data and measure the performance of campaigns.

Third-party data

Third-party data is proprietary data collected and/or generated by data brokers who license this data to agencies, advertisers, or publishers.


The date and time that a specific event – such as a click or conversion – occurred. Useful in reporting functions and attribution. For example, at Xandr, the timestamp format is YYYY-MM-DD HH:MM:SS. In this format, 12:15 PM on New Year's Day 2015 would be 2015-01-01 12:15:00.

Trading Desk

A buy-side trading entity housed within or working for advertising agencies. Also known as an agency trading desk or ATD. ATDs are usually the programmatic arms of holding companies. Independent trading desks, known as ITDs, are another kind of trading desk, and are usually outsourced managed services firms that run programmatic ad buys on behalf of advertisers or agencies.


To be considered transparent, a solution provider must fully disclose all components of the buy including pricing, any related mark ups, delivery, placement level media location, inventory type, inventory mix, and how advanced audience data is being applied and reported. Arbitrage and black box inventory solutions are not transparent.



User Generated Content

Unicast TV

Unicast TV is a one-to-one model of content distribution to a specific television screen (TV, Mobile Device, PC, Tablet). Content distribution is generally targeted using audience data.

Unique user ID

Also sometimes called a UUID. A unique, anonymous user ID for a given user profile that may be stored in a user's browser cookie and/or in the a server-side cookie store. Ad traffickers are not permitted to associate these IDs in any way with personally identifiable information (PII), and user IDs do not necessarily equate to a unique individual. An individual may also be associated with multiple user IDs due to clearing cookies or using multiple browsers and multiple devices. Additionally, for mobile devices, a unique user ID may be associated with multiple device IDs (for example, Apple IDFA, OpenUDID, etc.).

Unique user identifier (UUID)

AdTech platform use a unique user identifier (UUID) stored in a cookie to identify and track users, rather than using Personally identifiable information (PII), such as name and email address.


Individual users, as represented by a unique user ID. A unique user ID is not associated in any way with personally identifiable information (PII), so it cannot identify a specific unique individual. Also, an individual may be associated with multiple user IDs due to clearing browser cookies or using multiple browsers and multiple devices. Additionally, for mobile devices, a unique user ID may be associated with multiple device IDs (for example, Apple IDFA, OpenUDID, and others). See reach to learn more about individual users/user IDs.


The person who browses the web and sees ads.

User acquisition

User acquisition (often shortened to UA) is the act of gaining new users for an app, platform, or other service. On mobile, user acquisition is a strategy designed around generating installs, usually achieved by advertising campaigns and promotional offers.

User Agent

This usually refers to a browser application. For example, Mozilla 5.0 is a specific user agent.

User data

Any information that’s connected to a user, such as Behavioral data and demographic data.

User data store

A place where data about a user is stored. In online advertising, this often refers to a user's browser cookie. Sometimes, certain user data may be stored server-side for a limited period of time. This data is periodically expunged from server records in order to prevent it from drastically slowing server function, and does not contain personally identifiable information (PII).

User ID mapping

Each buyer and seller may assign their own different IDs to a user. Without knowing that Seller S's user ABC is the same as Buyer B's user 1234, it is impossible for B to value an impression from S. To allow for attribution and valuation, different parties must synchronize their IDs by mapping one ID to another. For example, Xandr assigns every user it sees a unique ID that's stored in the user's browser cookie. The Xandr member or bidder maps the Xandr ID to their internal user ID with the Xandr User ID Mapping Service. Also known as user ID synching.

User profile

Information about an individual online user along with an identifier or set of identifiers (device ID, cookie, etc.).

User sync pixel

A pixel used to synchronize user IDs assigned by different parties during an auction, generally to apply frequency, recency, and other decisioning data.


VAST (video ad-serving template)

An XML schema developed by the IAB that allows in-stream video ads (ads that are displayed in the video player, like those found on YouTube videos) to be served from video ad servers and played in video players across a number of websites, or publishers, and on numerous devices (desktop, mobile, tablet, etc). VAST was adopted as an industry standard to address the compatibility issues between video ad servers and video players located on websites.


Cost per mille, or thousand, viewable impressions (mille = thousand in Latin). A pricing model in which advertisers pay for every 1000 viewable impressions of their advertisement served. Viewability refers to whether an impression was actually seen by the user, and can be determined according to a variety of methods.


In online advertising, a vendor generally refers to a company with a specific product or service such as creating or delivering rich media, maintaining a CDN, or providing third-party data.

Video Advertising

Video advertising is the promotion of ads via video. Video ads can take many forms, whether they be short image-style videos, explainer videos or product videos. Videos may be promoted on various advertising networks, including social media and native video networks

Video Multiple Ad Playlist (VMAP)

This is an XML template that video content owners can use to describe the structure for ad inventory insertion when they don’t control the video player or the content distribution outlet.

Video on demand (VOD)

Video on demand (VOD) systems allow users to watch video content when they choose to, rather than having to watch at a specific broadcast time.

Video quartiles

A quartile is 1/4th of something. Media players fire a series of engagement pixels as the video continues to play. These pixels typically indicate how many quartiles of a video has been played, firing at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% completion.


Viewability determines whether an actual human saw the ad. The process involves checking whether the ad was contained in the viewable space of the browser window based on pre-established criteria, such as the percent of ad pixels and length of time the ad is in the viewable space of the browser. Knowing whether an ad was actually seen by a user, as opposed to a bot, allows advertisers to better measure the performance of their campaigns.

VMAP (video multiple ad playlist)

VMAP allows content owners (the people making the videos) to describe the structure for ad-inventory insertion if they don’t control the video player themselves, as is the case with YouTube, for example. VMAP was designed for use in conjunction with VAST (video ad-serving template) and is well-suited for video content creators who have no control over the video player, but want to control the ad experience within the videos.

VPAID (video player ad interface definition)

A piece of code that enables video Ad unit and video players to interact with one another. Compared to VAST (video ad-serving template), VPAID (video player ad interface definition) allows advertisers to serve rich, interactive ads to users and collect data about how users interact with their video ads.


Walled gardens

Walled gardens refer to services where the service provider has control over its ecosystem, including applications, content, organic media, paid media and any gathered data. Examples of walled gardens include Google, Facebook and Amazon. These service providers have access to persistent consumer identification which enables them to manage control groups and run A/B tests when it comes to advertising campaigns. These tests can be used to measure the ROI of media investments made within an individual walled garden. Walled gardens constrain external agency and advertisers’ ability to measure media ROI, as they represent an additional measurement constraint.


A process used by a Publisher to sell all Remnant inventory. This process occurs when a Publisher has been unable to sell its premium ad slots that are usually reserved for direct ad sales between the Publisher‘s internal sales team and advertisers. Waterfalling gets its name from the waterfall-like process for selling inventory – i.e. the demand sources are initiated one at a time, one after another.


A database that lists the websites that were approved by advertisers. A whitelist denotes that it is safe to locate the ads on these web sources, they have approved reputation and appropriate content. Whitelists work good for those companies who want to ensure the brand safety, this way, in case SSP is not able to identify the source, the ad will be automatically blocked by the whitelist.

Win rate

The indicator that shows whether the bid strategy is effective. In order to calculate the win rate divide the total number of impressions won by the number of submitted impressions bidded on. The win rate will also depend on the DSP platform, how many queries per second it can process and pre-set auction filters.




The amount of revenue a Publisher is able to make from its inventory. It is also the ability to maximize the publisher’s revenue and efficient use of its impressions. Maximizing yield rate may sometimes involve using tools such as floor mechanisms (Hard-floor prices and Soft-floor prices). If a Publisher is able to sell a high amount of its available inventory, then it would have high yield rates. If it isn’t, then it would have low yield rates.